Category Archives: Condensed matter

Let’s take a p-type semiconductor with a very clean surface and place it right next to the clean surface of a n-type semiconductor. This type of device is called an n-p junction diode, or simply a diode. […]

Ionization is a fundamental process in chemistry and physics, lying at the heart of many fascinating phenomena.
Ionization is the process of producing ions. Certain molecules ionize in solution, for example. But ions may also be formed when an atom […]

The most extensive use of semiconductors, such as silicon or germanium, including their use as transistors, arises from their behavior when, after being sufficiently purified of atoms other than the basic element (e.g., silicon or germanium), very small amounts […]

A visionary perspective of molecular electronics is the use of single molecules as functional entities in electronic devices. In this context, some of the most important components are molecular switches, which are molecules that can be interconverted reversibly between at […]

The most prevalent use today of semiconductors is forming them into transistors, the basic electronic building blocks of all “solid-state electronics” and computer microchips. Semiconductors are the most important materials in the burgeoning revolution in computers and other electronic devices […]

The interactions between moving charges and magnetic fields can be quite complicated; more if we consider the quantum effects. One example is the collection of Hall effects. There are analogues of these effects for spin and the detection of the […]

The band theory of metals has been subjected to experimental tests many times and is now the accepted model of the behaviour of conductors and insulators. But it has to be modified when it comes to superconductivity.
Electrical resistance is […]

In the early days of organic chemistry, the word aromatic was used to describe fragrant substances such as benzene (from coal distillate), benzaldehyde (from cherries, peaches, and almonds), and toluene (from tolu balsam).
It was soon realized, however, that substances […]

At a fundamental level the term “quantum computing” implies de use of quantum effects that have no classical analogue to process information. In a “classical computer” information is held in bits, which can have two alternative values (0 and 1). […]

In 1928, just two years after the formulation of quantum mechanics, the German physicist Arnold Sommerfeld modified the classical free-electron model by treating the electrons according to quantum mechanics. But the new theory still contained the unrealistic assumption that […]