Category Archives: Condensed matter

A dielectric is a nonconductor of electric charge in which an applied electric field causes a displacement of charge but not a flow of charge. Light propagation through a dielectric medium is determined by the spatial distribution of the material. […]

Electrons do not move around nuclei in defined curved orbits. Our current understanding of how electrons are to be found in atoms and molecules is based on clouds of probability called orbitals as it is not possible to give […]

When light encounters molecules, the predominant mode of scattering is elastic scattering (Rayleigh). This scattering is responsible for the blue colour of the sky, for example. It is also possible for the incident photons to interact with the molecules in […]

Topological insulators are electronic materials that have a bulk band gap like an ordinary insulator but have conducting states on their edge or surface. The conducting surface is not what makes topological insulators unique, but the fact that it is […]

Most plant and animal life on Earth depends on photosynthesis, a process in which green plants synthesize carbohydrates from CO2 and water, the reverse of this reaction provides energy for plants and animals. But the equilibrium of the reaction favours […]

There is a variable that is relevant for such seemingly different fields as outer space exploration , nanotechnology , fusion research , or medicine. And that is electronic stopping, its precise knowledge important for the understanding of space weathering, ion […]

According to how the electronic band theory is usually explained, solids can be classified as insulators, semiconductors, or metals. But, actually, there is another kind of solid between semiconductors and metals, the semimetals. In insulators and semiconductors the filled […]

In 1882, Heinrich Hertz devoted himself to the study of electromagnetism, including the recent and still generally unappreciated work of Maxwell. Two years later he began his famous series of experiments with electromagnetic waves. During the course of this work, […]

The combination of catalysis and bioorthogonality promises have an impact on drug discovery and bioimaging. Bioorthogonality, a term coined by Carolyn R. Bertozzi in 2003, refers to any chemical reaction that can occur inside of living systems without interfering with […]

Major technological revolutions have occurred when the humankind has been able to harness natural resources, such as fire, electricity or nuclear energy. We are now in the verge of the so called second quantum revolution, that aims to harness two […]