Category Archives: Molecular biology

Estrogens are steroid hormones affecting several organs including mammary glands. More precisely, these glands exert their action by means of estrogens through the estrogen receptor (ER), a transcription factor belonging to the family of nuclear receptors. So far, two […]

During the Cold War the competition between both sides, Russia and the United States of America, caused a quick development of military and spacial technology: while the Soviet Union was the first country responsible for an orbital launch (Sputnik 1), […]

Like the river of Heraclitus, our bones are constantly changing. Although it may look tough and immutable, the bone is a very dynamic tissue that is constantly formed and destroyed, having different appearances during each of the stages of […]

The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) is an atypical nuclear receptor. In principle, it may seem a mere receptor with a specific ligand and an evident role: it is capable of detecting mineralocorticoids (like aldosterone), exerting an essential function controlling sodium and […]

«BPA-Free», «No Bisphenol A» and similar labels have become a sort of seal of quality for those products where they are on display, especially containers and baby products. But, what is bisphenol A? In 1936 bisphenol A (BPA) was identified […]

Vitamin D is an atypical vitamin because it is not a real vitamin. Vitamins are supposed to be essential, meaning that our organism cannot live without them but their synthesis cannot take place in our cells, so we must ensure […]

The study of nuclear receptors includes a great variety of approaches and techniques: from experiments with transgenic mice assessing their roles in the organism, to three-dimensional methods at the atomic level, in which the position of each amino acid and […]

Our immune system comprises a great variety of cell types and each of these groups is specialized in separate and defined actions. Macrophages play an essential role within this defence system by enhancing the immune response. In particular, they are […]

The immune system is a complex network that recognises foreign substances in the body. When it detects an alien substance (antigen), it creates antibodies to attack and destroy it. This system protects vertebrates against viruses, bacteria, fungi and […]

World Health Organization (WHO) established the recognition of obesity as a disease in 1948, but it was not until the last decade of the 20th century that people began to gain awareness of overweight-derived health problems. A decade ago […]