Category Archives: Biology

“It is often said that all the conditions for the first production of a living organism are now present, which could ever have been present.— But if (& oh what a big if) we could conceive in some warm […]

From nucleic acids to proteins and sugar chains, all life is made up of polymers, large molecules made up of sequences of small units called monomers. However, how these macromolecules first appeared on the surface of Earth is still controversial. […]

Doñana National Park, at the South-western coast of Spain, is known to host several species of wading birds. These piscivorous birds nest in colonies in the neighboring woodlands, formed by cork oaks, close to the marshals where they feed. Ever […]

Author: Gerardo Ferrer got his Ph.D. in Medicine from the University of Barcelona in 2012. Currently, he is a postdoctoral researcher at the Karches Center for Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Research and Center for Oncology and Cell Biology, The Feinstein […]

In social species, the dominant individual is often called the alpha. Depending on the species, the alpha may be a male, a female, both or a pair. The alpha individual usually presents a certain behavior: dominant, assertive, brash and usually […]

Testosterone is the primary male sex hormone and, in men, it plays a key role in the development of male reproductive tissues such as the testis and prostate, as well as promoting secondary sexual characteristics such as increased muscle and […]

We’ve known for decades there was a time when mammoths, saber-tooth cats, and other big mammals walked the Earth like it was no big deal. We also know that at some point of the Ice Age, a mass extinction made […]

Every organism, from virus to animals need nitrogen (N) to live; indeed, nucleic acids and proteins are made out with N. Nearly all of these organisms, fulfill their nitrogen needs taken up N from the environment in reduced forms, usually […]

The neuronal membrane, like membranes surrounding other cells, is mainly formed by a lipid surface impermeable to ions. It is only through ion channels, small protein pores embedded in the membrane, that ions can cross, allowing electrical current to charge […]

Patients suffering from rare diseases (defined by the European as those affecting less than 5 in 10000 people) have traditionally been overlooked by pharmaceutical companies. They are usually looking for the next blockbuster drug, so the lack of a large […]