Author archives: Francisco R. Villatoro

Carbon nanotubes to study neuron activity

Carbon nanotubes to study neuron activity

BiomedicineMaterialsNeurobiologyPhysicsPhysiology

By Francisco R. Villatoro

Human brain has about 85 billion neurons. Each neuron forms thousands of chemical and electrical synapses with other neurons. To record the synaptic activity of each neuron in the brain an intracellular probe with a millivolt scale is required. Glass electrodes are widely used, but they are fragile and they have high impedance. An intracellular […]

Massive quantum entanglement

Massive quantum entanglement

Computer sciencePhysicsQuantum physics

By Francisco R. Villatoro

Entanglement is a fundamental tool in quantum computing and several quantum information protocols, such as quantum teleportation, quantum cryptography and quantum key distribution. The basic unit of entanglement is the entangled bit (ebit), represented by a maximally entangled state of two qubits (quantum bits). Entanglement can also be implemented in a higher dimensional Hilbert space […]

Read it twice: heat transfer from a cooler body to a hotter body

Read it twice: heat transfer from a cooler body to a hotter body

Physics

By Francisco R. Villatoro

Without any conflict with the second law of thermodynamics, heat can flow from a cooler but constantly heated body to another thermally connected and constantly hotter body. This anomalous heat transfer has been demonstrated in a two-phase liquid-vapor system composed of a Rayleigh–Bénard convection (RBC) cell filled one-half with normal liquid helium and one-half with […]

The speed of gravity 

The speed of gravity 

Astrophysics

By Francisco R. Villatoro

Newton’s theory of gravitation assumes that the speed of gravity is infinite and the gravitational interaction is instantaneous. However, Einstein’s theory postulates that it is exactly equal to the speed of light. A team of Chinese physicists lead by Tang Ke Yun, at the Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China […]

ESA’s Planck satellite finds the missing baryons

ESA’s Planck satellite finds the missing baryons

AstrophysicsCosmologyPhysics

By Francisco R. Villatoro

Where is the half of the ordinary matter in the universe not observed yet? Computer simulations of cosmological galaxy formation predict the existence of large intercluster filaments of hot and low-density gas, the so-called cosmic web. For the first time, ESA’s Planck satellite has observed one of such filaments in the merging cluster pair A399-A401 […]