Category Archives: Biology

Stammering, stuttering or alalia literalis is a speech disorder characterized by involuntary repetition and prolongations of sounds, syllables, words or phrases and involuntary silent pauses or blocks where the affected person is unable to produce sounds. Around 1-in-20 children […]

Pasquale Pellegrini holds an M.Sc. in Biotechnology from Università degli Studi di Bari (Italy). He moved to Barcelona to pursue his Ph.D. at the Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute (IDIBELL), in Barcelona, where he uncovered key mechanisms of mammary […]

Neanderthals (Homo neanderthalensis) were a species –some say a subspecies although most authors consider there is enough evidence to consider them as a separate species– of human closely related to us. They were firstly discovered in a cave […]

Hibernation is a state of inactivity and metabolic depression used by some mammals to survive a cold winter. It may last several days, weeks, or months depending on the species, environment temperature, season, and individual’s body condition. Usually, hibernating animals […]

In multicellular organisms, embryonic stem cells develop into any of the different cell types that will form the adult, and along the development, they silence or activate different parts of the genome, giving rise to distinct cell identities, which are […]

One hears blue blood and immediately thinks about royal family members. Some biologists, though, immediately will think about Limulus polyphemus, a marine animal commonly known as the horseshoe crab. Why? Because, very surprisingly, this arthropod actually has true blue […]

Behavioral lateralization is a significant field of study because it may provide insights into the initial origins of lateralization. Different and very diverse organisms show lateralization. The best known is handedness, a better (faster or more precise) performance or individual […]

Complex systems in biology have several levels of organization, establishing a hierarchy of systems and subsystems. An ant colony is a wonderful example with the highest level being the colony itself, formed by hundreds or thousands of insects, each individual […]

Animals drift when they enter a fluid (liquid or gas) and are transported to a new location by gravity or currents. Drift is best known from rivers and ocean currents, but can also occur on land, whenever organisms leave their […]

The biological world is composed of dense, communicating, and difficult to understand ensembles. Animals living in groups –a school of fish, a flock of birds– have evolved to act in concert, a quality needed for coordinated movement. More complex […]