Category Archives: Biology

Symmetry is a major trait in the architecture of the vast majority of animals: if we exclude sponges, a typical animal body plan will show one or more planes of symmetry. Radial symmetry is considered the ancestral state for the […]

Animals like spiders, snakes, scorpions, and cone snails inject venoms to their preys to immobilize or kill them. But what there is in these venoms that can trigger such a strong effect? The venom of these animals is actually a […]

The gecko, a climber´s hero, a lizard able to get a grip even face down on the smoothest ceiling or on the most vertical slippery surfaces. That, the adherence is one of the most striking features in most of the […]

Quantum mechanics, a term continously repeated during the last twenty years, related with everything, only deeply known and understood by a few, is therefore covered in a mystic and magic halo. Halo profited by some to trick people using any […]

It is happening again, right now. In multiple localities across Eastern North America, as the end of the spring warms up the soil, legions of hundreds of thousands of insects are being awakened from their underground hides. They reach the […]

Carbohydrates are molecules composed of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen. They are formed of at least three atoms of carbon. Monosaccharides are the simplest carbohydrates and they cannot be hydrolyzed to smaller carbohydrates. Among the monosccharides we find glucose or fructoses […]

In areas with dense cover or little snow, the wolf is one of the most difficult animals to census. In the Iberian Peninsula and other southern regions of wolves’ global range, snow is rare in winter, so wolves must be […]

If you have ever faced that thankless task of cleaning fish, for sure you will have realized, at least envisaged, the complex architecture of the fish’s natural armour. Fish scales play the role of a skeleton which provides both protection […]

Flowers are the reproductive organs of angiosperms (flowering plants) and flowering is therefore the phenomenon by which the undifferentiated cells from the meristems (similar to animal stem cells) differentiate into a floral meristem that will then produce the different components […]

The lungs of birds move air in only one direction during both inspiration and expiration through a set of tubular gas-exchanging bronchi called parabronchi. On the other hand, in the lungs of mammals and other vertebrates, air moves tidally into […]