The most prevalent use today of semiconductors is forming them into transistors, the basic electronic building blocks of all “solid-state electronics” and computer microchips. Semiconductors are the most important materials in the burgeoning revolution in computers and other electronic devices […]
The interactions between moving charges and magnetic fields can be quite complicated; more if we consider the quantum effects. One example is the collection of Hall effects. There are analogues of these effects for spin and the detection of the […]
Quantum mechanics was founded upon the existence of the wave–particle dualism of light and matter, and the enormous success of quantum mechanics, including the probability interpretation, seems to reinforce the importance of this dualism. But how can a particle be […]
The band theory of metals has been subjected to experimental tests many times and is now the accepted model of the behaviour of conductors and insulators. But it has to be modified when it comes to superconductivity.
Electrical resistance is […]
In the early days of organic chemistry, the word aromatic was used to describe fragrant substances such as benzene (from coal distillate), benzaldehyde (from cherries, peaches, and almonds), and toluene (from tolu balsam).
It was soon realized, however, that substances […]
At a fundamental level the term “quantum computing” implies de use of quantum effects that have no classical analogue to process information. In a “classical computer” information is held in bits, which can have two alternative values (0 and 1). […]
In 1928, just two years after the formulation of quantum mechanics, the German physicist Arnold Sommerfeld modified the classical free-electron model by treating the electrons according to quantum mechanics. But the new theory still contained the unrealistic assumption that […]
Electrical energy is now the dominant form of energy consumption in industrialized countries and is an essential element in the operation of many of the devices we use every day. For decades, one of the most poorly understood yet most […]
One of the first recognized successes of the early quantum theory arose, not from the study of radiation, but from the theory of solids. Once again in the physics of the first half of the 20th century Albert […]
We finished our last article saying that it is one thing to accept this newly stated connection between electric and magnetic fields; but it is a little bit harder, and more interesting, to understand the physical necessity for such […]